In 1987, Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson published their classic work entitled “Seven principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education.” A. W. Bangert opined in a 2004 article that “The Seven Principles framework (Chickering and Gamson) offers solid, research guidance for the design and delivery of Internet courses.”
Principle 01: Encourages contacts between students and faculty.
- Email response policy sets expectations for both student and instructor
- Electronic office hours
- Use a variety of communication tools in course (announcements, email, discussion, etc.)
- Synchronous communication (chat, text, Skype, etc.)
- Pictures or avatars for faculty and students
Principle 02: Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students.
- Discussion forums
- Peer review
- Ice-breaker activity
- Tools for collaboration
- Group projects
Principle 03: Uses Active Learning Techniques.
- Problem based learning (case studies, vignettes)
- Projects that end in class presentation
- Peer review
- Group activities and/or discussion
Principle 04: Gives prompt feedback.
- Policy on return of student work
- Use rubrics
- Quizzes for formative assessment
Principle 05: Emphasizes time on task.
- Clearly state course objectives (beyond placing in syllabus)
- Clear expectations for assignments and assessments
- Send reminders and announcements
- Set definite deadlines (course schedule)
- Late work submission discouraged
Principle 06: Communicates high expectations.
- Use rubrics to set expectations for participation and assignments
- Regular participation and feedback in discussion forums
- Detailed course schedule
- Publish student work
- Model expected behavior for students
- Call attention to excellent work
Principle 07: Respects diverse talents and ways of learning.
- Use a variety of modes of content delivery (text, audio, video, images)
- Provide some choice in project topics (students can pick something related to their interests or work)
- Assessment of prior knowledge at start of course
- Encourage students to express diverse points of view in discussions
- Provide various real-life examples
Chickering and Gamson’s article is available here: http://tipsforfaculty.com/2012/10/30/classic-works-chickering-and-gamson/
Bangert, A. W. “The Seven Principles of Good Practice: A Framework for Evaluating Online Teaching.” The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 7 no. 3 (2004), 217-232.